Category Archives: Byd Education

India’s Move to Right to Education

It was Saturday afternoon; the world seemed to be on vacation but me, as I was busy serving guests at a lunch party at my masters’ residence. Chatting and laughing was loud enough to be heard in every nook and corner of the house. But those were of least concern to me, because I had to respond to every single call for any requirement at the very word of the guests or the master in particular. It was 2009, and I was just seven, wearing a sweater and a half pant, watching a bunch of people boasting about the achievements of their wards and trying to prove ones child better than the other. When suddenly, an old man read from a magazine that the government was to pass a new act namely, Right to Education Act. But to me those routine talks about the household work made more sense than this new coming up topic, because neither I could read or understand there high-level conversation, which had diverted there talks from their children, on top of that I didn’t even understand, what the word ‘right’ meant. That elderly fellow said something like…

History of the Act:

The Free and Compulsory Education Bill 2003 was the first attempt of the Central government to draft a comprehensive legislation on education after the 86th Constitutional Amendment that made education a fundamental right. The Bill was an excellent example of bureaucratic empowerment, creating up to 6 levels of various authorities to ensure the provision of free and compulsory education. Furthermore, the reservation of up to 25% of the private school seats for the economically backward students to be selected by these authorities ensured that the Bill was a throwback to the old licence-permit-raj regime. Following widespread criticism, the Bill was discarded.

The Right to Education Bill 2005 is the second attempt by the Central government to set the education system right. Some of the important provisions of the Bill:

• Promises free and compulsory education of equitable quality up to the elementary level to all children in the age group of 6 to 14.
• Mandates unaided private schools to reserve up to 25 percent of the seats for students from weaker sections. The schools will be reimbursed by the lower of the actual school fee or per student expenditure in the government school. The aided schools will reserve “at least such proportion of their admitted children as its annual recurring aid bears to its annual recurring expenses subject to a minimum of 25 per cent.”
• Requires all remaining students to be accommodated by opening new government schools and within three years of the passage all students to have a school to go within their own neighbourhood.
• Forms School Management Committees (SMCs) comprising parents and teachers for state schools and aided schools. The SMCs will own the assets of the school, manage the accounts, and pay salaries.
• Establishes a National Commission for Elementary Education to monitor the implementation of the Bill, State Regulatory Authorities to address grievances under the Bill, and several ‘competent authorities,’ ‘local authorities,’ and ’empowered authorities’ to perform a vast number of regulatory functions and meet out punishment to defaulters.
• Assigns all state school teachers to particular schools from which they will never be transferred-creates a school-based teacher cadre.

The finance committee and planning commission rejected the Bill citing the lack of funds and a Model bill was sent to states for the making necessary arrangements.

Educational Leadership in the 21st Century

Education plays a unique role right from the birth of humanity in its onward journey. In the background of the emerging global country of 21st century, education has incomparably challenging roles to play. The ‘global family’ becomes a close -knit community, minimizing and eliminating geographic, ethnic, linguistic, cultural, economic and all other barriers and the role of education has to undergo a conspicuous change. At this era of reconstruction and redefining, the very concept of education has to be reconstructed, redefined and modified assimilating the good elements of the past and discarding the bad ones. In fact, the basic concept of education remains intact in its mission but pedagogy and methodology have to be reviewed. That is what T.S Eliot said, “It is in fact a part of the function of education to help us escape, not from our own time — for we are bound by that — but from the intellectual and emotional limitations of our time.”The educational leadership in this century is endowed with the noble role of managing these changes in an effective and appropriate manner.

The most important challenge of education is to keep pace with the knowledge society. The knowledge and information evolve, develop and are acquired at an alarming speed. The educational leadership has to help the institution encompass the exploding growth of knowledge lest it would remain obsolete. This emphasizes the education being technologically up to date and scientifically exploring. This paradigm shift is due to the giant leaps in communication and information technology that can be manipulated as an asset rather than a challenge. Thus, the real concern in education today lies in the effective management of this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the academicians need to be dynamically ultra paced in the pedagogic process.

The highest edge of competition is the talisman of 21st century. This quest for excellence prioritises the need for competitiveness in all fields. The quiescent knowledge imparted through conventional methods may leave the principal and the agent in the education far behind the signs of the time. The product of an alma mater needs to be equipped with the best to face the world ahead of it. Unless the institution succeeds in this noble mission, it will merely be added up as just one among the others in the list of the so-called millions of schools. Thus, leading innovation in education ensuring uncompromising quality in the minutest of details and at the same time being effective, the educational leadership makes an institution a pace-setting one.

An effective education is life education. Advancing one’s knowledge and imbibing competence become worthwhile only when it contributes to the emotional intelligence and quality of life of the individual. John Dewey defines,” Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself”. 21st century has the biggest chaos in its values and priorities. Along with achieving professional growth in life, the overall development of the individual needs a special stress. Education should equip an individual to re-define and re-discover the culture and values for oneself. How an individual takes decisions and allots priorities depend on how well the education has expanded his/her horizons. To dedicate oneself to the service of the nation and his/her fellowmen, one needs to be reinforced by the quality of education he/she receives. The question is whether the modern education leads a learner forward along a path where he is enriched academically, culturally, emotionally, physically and spiritually or not. “The main part of intellectual education is not the acquisition of facts but learning how to make facts live.” — Oliver Wendell Holmes

The Psychology of Education

On the need for an individualistic educational psychology emphasizing on the central role of the learner

Education and psychology are related in more than just one way and the psychology of education could be related to educational principles in psychology or how education as a discipline is taught within psychology as a subject and how these two disciplines merge. This is primarily the focus of educational psychology which studies how human learning occurs, what ways of teaching are most effective, what different methods should be used to teach gifted or disabled children and how principles of psychology could help in the study of schools as social systems.

Psychological education would be completely focused on learning methods as structured or imparted according to psychological and individual needs of the students. Education would differ according to culture, values, attitudes, social systems, mindset and all these factors are important in the study of education in psychology.

Educational psychology is the application of psychological objectives within educational systems and psychological education as I distinguish here is application of educational objectives in psychological processes. The first focus of using psychology in education is more general and the second approach of using education in psychology is more individualistic. However as far as present study of educational approach to psychology is concerned, there is no difference between individualistic educational psychology and general educational psychology and all interrelationships between psychology and education are considered within the broad discipline of educational psychology.

However a distinction between the more general educational psychology and more specific psychological or individualistic education could help in understanding the nuances of individualistic study and give a subjective dimension to the study of psychology in education. This could also help in making learning systems more student based and according to the needs of culture, society, individual or personal factors. This sort of study with a focus on personal/psychological aspects of learning is not just about social objectives and objectives within educational systems but also about personal goals and objectives and the psychological processes involved in learning. There has to be a clearer demarcation between education in psychology as a general study and individualistic education in psychology as a more specific and subjective discipline.

As of now educational psychology encompasses a wide range of issues and topics including the use of technology and its relation to psychology, learning techniques and instructional design. It also considers the social, cognitive, behavioural dimensions of learning but it would be necessary to make education more personal and individualistic through a special branch with a psychological focus on education so that individual needs are considered. There could be two ways in which this branch of knowledge could evolve – either by strengthening psychological education or individualistic approach to the psychology of education or by having two distinct branches of general educational psychology and individualistic educational psychology.

As in client centered approach to psychology, a psychology of education should also include further research that would highlight the need for individualistic dimensions in learning. Learning psychology is the use of psychological theories for example that of Jean Piaget and Kohler in the study of learning techniques, especially among children. I have already discussed Piaget but briefly Piaget’s theory higlights different stages of learning in children and Kohler suggested that learning occurs by sudden comprehension or understanding, however I will not go further into learning theories here. Whereas the focus of educational psychology is on learning techniques per se and the role of the learner is considered only secondary, a branch of individualistic psychology in education could help in emphasizing the role of the learner considering not just their disabilities or giftedness but also their personality patterns. This focus on personality patterns brings out the central role of understanding psychology in educational systems.

Educational psychology studies both the personal approaches to education as in giftedness, disability, learning theories applied to children and adults, and the more general objective approaches to learning as the role of schools as social or cultural systems.

The psychology of education could include the following branches:

General Educational Psychology

1. Learning Systems – As studied from individualistic learning perspectives and generalized learning perspectives, a discussion of the different theories, practices and systems or techniques of learning is an integral part of educational psychology and especially central to general educational psychology.

2. Social Systems – The use of education in social, cultural and economic systems could be considered within the psychological context and this relates to the role of education in society.

Individualistic Educational Psychology

1. Learning Systems – Learning techniques and systems or methods will have to be in accordance with the needs of the children or adult participants and according to skills of the teachers. Needs vary according to personal traits and abilities and individual needs will have to be considered during the learning process.

2. Social Systems – Individual learning psychology will have to be studied according to specific social and cultural backgrounds of the learners and thus a more subjective study of learning approaches and centralized role of the individual in the learning process considering their social, cultural or intellectual background will have to be considered.

Globalization and Changes in Education

Recent investigations in the study of demographic trends at global level are currently making light on a very controversial aspect, although ignored by global institutions, like O.N.U., U.N.D.P., G 20, same by organizations with attributions in the educational field (as UNESCO, Youth International Authorities and other). The so-called “demographic winter” phenomenon, which reveals the dramatic consequences of the “modern” life, marked by familial and moral decline, by miscarriage, vulgarization and the homosexuality “normalization”, by the poisoning influence of the majority of mass-media and the “Hollywood culture” are inoculating egocentrism, frivolity and irresponsibility. Considering this demographic trend offers a new dimension to the way in which abundance and resource of the world are distributed and also gives a new vision on elementary educational issues.

The globalization of education is reflecting itself in the extension and unification of educational practices, used by all those public or private entities, involved as active social educators. Over time, the public education systems in developed or emerging countries, which promote formal education, are illustrating with consistency the practice of a classical education system. In the field of non-formal education there are used more innovating and diverse methods of education, but unfortunately few of this are oriented upon individual behaviour reshaping in the global context, and they are looking only to proliferate consumerist habits, by preparing youngsters for a successful professional career start. The presence of NGO’s with international coverage and professional training companies has fixed the currently understood “development in education” in comfortable limits. This makes room for a reshape of educational fundamentals and, more obvious, for the ultimate purpose of learning.

Most people think that education should equip them with the proper exploitation instruments so that they can forever trample over the masses. Still other thinks that education should furnish them with noble ends rather than means to an end. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals.

Socially speacking, the technological revolution, the broaden access to information and the modern lifestyle facilities have made possible the appearance of an irreversible phenomenon in the conflict between generations. In our present times, the children, “sons of globalization” have access to multiple sources of information, with the internet being most of the time an instrument of self-education. The balance is leaning in the favour of the power of informed youth, who become “the teachers”, explaining the new world order to the eldest. This theory takes into consideration the acceleration of technology and the way of our lifestyle, but, beyond its observational character, it does not bring up the discussion on the relevance of educational systems, visible outmoded, which attempts to destroy the moral and statutory principles. The wisdom is transmitted from the old generation to the youth, and not backward.

Therefore we are raising the question regarding the way organisms responsible for educational issues should reconsider the basic fundamentals of this basic activity, which clearly has guided the evolution of our world so far. It isn’t enough for organizations like U.N.E.S.C.O or U.N.D.P. to confront the absence of primary education and the discrimination regarding access to education in underdeveloped countries, to avoid resettling the educational needs inside an inappropriate system. It is necessary to deal with these aspects in proper time, because we consider education the key-element which can slow down the process of planet and people self destruction.

Burnout and Educators

As globalization and technology continue to change the way in which businesses function, the need for highly skilled workers possessing the ability to synthesize, analyze and communicate will be the litmus test separating successful from unsuccessful economies. Where does the US fall in light of this? Can the US produce sufficient highly skilled workers to meet the demands of an ever evolving society? If the 2010 results of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is any indication then the US was found wanting.

The test results showed US students lagging behind many of their peers from other countries in core subject areas. This realization has once more invigorated the consistent intermittent debate surrounding quality education in US schools. In the aftermath of the report, the brainstorming sessions that follows will once more seek to unearth the impediments to the creation of a better education system. What will be discovered? An examination of prior measures unveiled to address the shortfalls of quality education to date, seems to focus consistently on educators as a causative element.

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002), as well as research which hints that a high quality teacher is the single most important factor that influences students academic performance give credence to the prior statement. These avenues which seek to focus on ways to increase academic achievement seem to hint that educators are the most critical element impacting the ability of students to perform academically. This conclusion has led to extreme pressures on educators to increase academic performances. These pressures while not new, for as Popham stated they existed prior to NCLB (2004) will increase in magnitude as the world continues to change. Can this continuous insistent pressure result in adverse effects for educators? What are the implications for the teaching and learning environment and invariably society?

Relentless pressure to perform in environments that are highly volatile is often conducive to burnout. This burnout is a nemesis to the creation of an education system that is capable of producing students equipped to deal with 21st century workplace challenges; skills which are critical to any country hoping to maintain or achieve a competitive advantage. Drucker makes this point when he coined the term “knowledge workers’ and highlighted their importance for the success of 21st century businesses. This paper examines the principles of rest and highlights the value of rest to educators operating in contemporary educational environments.

The paper pinpoints the challenges facing contemporary American education system which may inhibit rest and brings clarity to the dangers of burnout – a condition created by lack of rest. Leaders in education as well as stakeholders are provided with clear guidelines which may be used to prevent burnout and promote rest. The paper ends with a plea for education leaders to adhere to the necessity to rest in order to construct learning environments capable of creating students with the analytical, synthesizing and communication skills that are critical to ensuring the demands of contemporary and future organizations.

The day started with an Individualized Education Plan for one of my students. Once the meeting was finished I analyzed the results from the summative assessment for forty students from the previous day. I realized that fifteen of my students did not grasp some of the key concepts from the lesson and so I commenced planning intervention strategies. Two strategies had to be different to accommodate two of my students who needed modified assignments. This activity took almost fifty minutes and so I had just enough time to adjust my lesson plans for the day. It was now five minutes before the start of class and as I checked my calendar I realized that I had a meeting at the end of the day with teachers from my department. I made a note to myself, just before I leave for the meeting I must remember to call the parents of three of my students as they were not completing homework and had started acting up in class. As I jotted the note, I glanced at the other meetings and forms that needed attention by the end of the week. As the bell rang one teacher passed my door and as I smiled politely and asked “how are you;” she looked at me and stated “I am overwhelmed, there seems to be so much to do and with all these meetings I am quite frankly exhausted.”

What Is Difference Between Education

The history of education is as early as the history of man’s in the grassland of eastern Africa, in the valleys in Ethiopia, when early man was passing knowledge, skills and attitude from older generation to the younger generation, even when they were roaming the grassland of Africa, that was the earliest form of education.

When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc., formal education and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling was in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC. And the oldest University in the world is the University of Kaureem, Morocco founded in1088

Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In the early societies this was done orally and through imitation.

Story telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially.

Formal education is any form of instruction or education provided by a recognized, structure institutions teaching courses or even at home, following a planned course of study. Most formal education is classroom-based, provided by trained or specialized instructors. As normally used, the term formal education refers to the structured educational system.

The term non-formal education is used to distinguish formal education from self-education obtained through personal experiences, life and general reading. In contrast, non-formal education refers to education that takes place outside of the formally organized schooling system. This type of education is called non-formal because; it is not compulsory and it does not lead to formal certifications and mostly acquired outside the so-called school structured system.

The word education is derived from educare (Latin) “bring up”, which is related to educere “bring out”, “bring forth what is within”, “bring out potential” and ducere, “to lead”

Education is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. The education training is chiefly from the old to the younger generation. Education helps you with your thought process and decision making abilities. Education gives you a solid foundation that you can build upon. Education is not just the piece of paper called diploma, they are those things you bump into during the process that enlightens your mind, which in turns tiger the intellect in you. That is the benefit of an educational process. The things you stumble into during the process.

Both formal and informal education settings offer different strengths to the education of the society at large. One of the dangers of formal education is that we are program to follow, instead of leading. Where the acquired education transfers to intelligence is when you create.

Intelligence on the other hand, is the ability to comprehend; the ability of the mind comprehending related abilities, such as the capacities for abstract thinking (Critical thinking), think rationally, thought, reasoning, planning and problem solving, to understand and profit from experience gathered. Inshore, intelligence is what you do with what you know to achieve the some form of goal.

You can go to all the finest schools, colleges and universities; you cannot get a diploma for intelligence. You develop intelligence, however, a solid education enhances your intelligence. Intelligence is like creativity, you have it or you don’t. You cannot teach creativity, you can only enhance it. Similarly, intelligence in an innate ability you have that can be enhanced with solid education.

As someone put it perfectly well, “Formal education makes you a living while self education, makes you a fortune”. That is what you call Intelligence.

Online Education Eradicates Illiteracy All Across the Globe

The impact of computer can be seen in every respective field either in business or jobs. The computer has brought several changes in various fields. Now one can communicate with other by internet via mail, chat or webcam. The education has brought revolutionary change in educational fields. The education with the help of internet based training program has open door for online education. The online form of education has helped in reaching education to every niche of world with the help of computer connected with internet connections. The electronic form of education has eradicated illiteracy and work for better in economic growth and improving infrastructure. The online form of education features electronically supported learning and training. The curriculum is simple and comprehensive and education approach is possible through modern devices and latest gadgets. The content of learning is delivered via internet, intranet or extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.

The online educations courses can be delivered by web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. The education is supported by electronically supported learning via internet, intranet audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. The material is available in the form of text, image, animation, video and audio. One can attend orientation classes or watch training program conducted by virtual instructor. The advancement in technology has brought rapidly change in education and now one can gain pick comprehensive learning program available in online education colleges according to their conveyance or need. The candidate can acquire desire education of famous university with the help of online form of education. The global form of education has solved out the barriers of education of remote locations. Now they can gain knowledge and attend virtual classes and take help of world class faculty via mail or text chat message or other means of social networking sites.

The courses offer multiple options to choose or select. One can do management or complete their engineering degree or diploma by online university. The online education has made possible for getting education of secondary school or higher qualification. One can get job all over the world with the help of online degree courses as it contains value and recognized all across the world. For professionals, online degree offer opportunity for better career options. The employee can improve their job profile or can bring changes in it. They can get promotions with degree of higher qualification. As earning an online education degrees would not bring any barriers in working profile, same time you got degree of higher education while working. So one can feel that such degree give learning while earning. Also it add bonanza in profile as experience keep on persisting with degree educations. The professional can bring improvement in job profile and can gain promotions in designations and increment in salary. As individual growth counts for nation development so country can improve their educational structure and count economic growth.

Degree Training for an Education (Teaching) Career

The need for educational instructors is increasing as the population continues to grow. Students can obtain a degree in the field of education by enrolling in one of a number of degree schools and colleges. Degree training for an education (teaching) career in the field of education can prepare students to work in elementary schools, middle schools, high school, higher education programs, and much more. With an accredited degree in teaching students will gain the knowledge and skills needed to pursue a variety of careers. Available degrees in this field consist of a bachelor’s, masters and doctorates level degree. Students must hold a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in order to qualify for entrance into an education training program.

Educational degree training programs are provided to help students prepare for the world of teaching. With an accredited school or college students will gain the skills to work with children of all ages as well as adults. Coursework will vary depending on the program of enrollment and the level of degree desired by each individual student. Most professional in this field are required to study subjects like:

  • English
  • Discipline
  • Science
  • Computers
  • History
  • Psychology of Learning
  • Art

…and more. Some schools and college may also offer training in philosophy of education, social studies, music, physical education, teaching methods, and other related course subjects.

Students who are looking for the opportunity to enter into a career training program for a degree in education can do so by entering a bachelor’s degree program. Most schools require that an associate’s degree be obtained prior to enrolling in an educational degree training program. With a bachelors degree in this field students can obtain the skills needed to work with a variety of ages teaching a number of subjects. Teachers with a bachelor’s degree have a number of responsibilities when providing an education to others. Accredited schools and colleges will train students to provide educational instruction to their class in a variety of ways. Students can obtain a masters or doctorates degree in education as well.

With an accredited masters or doctorates degree program students can prepare for a career providing an education to others. Education teaching programs at this level provide a more in depth program of study for students looking to specialize in a specific area of the field. With a masters or doctorates degree in education students can find employment specializing in areas like early childhood education, special education, physical education, reading, electives, and much more. Masters and doctorates degree are the highest level of degrees available in this field.

By requesting more information regarding a training program in education students can prepare for the career of their dreams. Students who wish to provide an education to others can gain their own education at various levels in order to become a professional in the field of teaching. Students can also enroll in continuing education certificate courses in order to stay current on various teaching methods. Accredited education schools and colleges that are approved by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education ( http://www.ncate.org/ ) can provide students with the training needed to pass state exams and receive their license.

Importance of Education

There are many definitions of education but in a simple way, education is an act or process of passing on or gaining general knowledge, building the ability to reason and judge, and generally training oneself or others mentally for matured life.

Many underdeveloped countries today do not pay attention to the importance of education in the society and this has made most countries not to be developed. I ask myself what advantage it will be if most of these underdeveloped countries have people in the government who are well educated and if they could give proper attention to the education sector of the country in order for the youth to develop and be able to reposition the country as they are been called leaders of tomorrow.

It is well known that education leads to success and I will be discussing the importance of education and why I think education is the backbone of anybody that needs to change the world in a positive way. Education can never be underestimated as education forms the heart of any society. The knowledge of making new discoveries, executing these discoveries for the success of any society can be achieved through education. The growth of many developed countries today can be attributed to the quality of education that is been imparted to the people. People who have quality education are able to improve the society by making reforms that will cause economic, social and political growth and development of the society.

Education opens your mind to better understand the world around you and how things works. Learning the different cultures and happenings taking place at different places around the world is possible through education. Our horizons are been broaden through education so that we can not only confined to what is happening in our countries but what is happening around the world.

Good jobs today are given to well educated people, this was stressed in the words of the United State President Barrack Obama, when he said “In an economy where knowledge is the most valuable commodity a person and a country have to offer, the best jobs will go to the best educated- whether they live in the United States or India or China”. This statement shows the importance of education in getting the best jobs in the society and holding the best positions in companies.

Education helps you to have confidence in life. You are able to plan your life effectively when you have education as it will help to analyze problems of life and be able to come out with solutions to those problems that you might face. Educated people are able to make decisions that can change life in a positive ways as they will have acquire a lot of experience as they learn new things every day.

The importance of education is well evident in developed countries as it play a major role in personal and social development. Education has been used as a means to alleviate poverty, oppression, and war as the leaders are well equipped with knowledge to guide the country towards growth. In some countries, there has been problem of overpopulation which is one of the greatest worry of mankind. Overpopulation can be attributed to lack of proper and better education. Sex education needs to be taught to the youths who are adult of tomorrow.

Financial growth in one’s life can be achieved through education. Instructions on how to manage money and invest the money wisely can be achieved when you have good education as you are well knowledgeable on the ways to start your own business and reducing the risk of getting bankrupt. Education has been used as a major tool to inform people of their rights and services that they can have access to. In order to be able to differentiate between doing the right and wrong, education plays a vital role as youth are been taught what ought to be done and what not to be done in the society and how they can be a responsible person in the society.

Lastly, children from their early age needs to understand the importance of education. This will help them have open minds and be able to have the determination to learn new things as their brain are able to assimilate new things when they are young.

Contents of Education

An Islamic Perspective towards Philosophy of Education

Introduction

Philosophy is the study of realities, pursuit of wisdom, and commentary on general principles of life. It is concerned with a search of eternal truth, both conceptual as well as practical. It has five areas of search – Epistemology, Metaphysics, Aesthetics, Ethics and History. The instrument used by philosophy to unearth realities or to discover truth is logic, both inductive as well deductive. Educational philosophy is a branch of general philosophy, it gains strength from epistemology. It formulates the aims and objectives or contents of education that, in turn, influence the whole learning environment, society, and future generations.

Philosophy of education is based on general principles of psychology, sociology, politics, economics, history, science, and religion. Education is dualistic phenomenon; it is static as well as dynamic. The major portion is dynamic or provisional and adjusts with the change and growth in knowledge, social structure, and civilization, while the minor but vital portion is static or eternal. We proposed that the contents of education are eternal while the application and explanation of these contents, a major portion, is dynamic. We assumed multi-disciplinary approach towards contents of education. The analysis accommodates the needs of individuals, society, and time and encompasses the cultural, social, and vocational aims of education.

Education may be formal as well as informal. The formal education is given in schools or colleges or universities, on the other hand informal education is obtained and absorbed from society and environment. Education, formal & informal, is developed and internalized in one’s personality through reflection and experience. It means all of us are learners during our lifetime. However, we are going to analyze the philosophy (aims & objectives) of formal education. Moreover, education has three levels – primary, secondary, and higher. Primary education deals with infants of 3 to 11 years old, secondary education covers teenagers of 12 to 18 years, and higher education shapes young learners of above 18 years. A distinctive approach is required for each level of education.

The contents of education vary from community to community. A secular society would have a different approach towards contents as compare to some ideological society. Moreover, the explanation or implementation of contents would be different in different societies. Our analysis is ideological and dominantly based on Islamic view towards education.

Terminology

The term “education” has been derived from the Latin words Educare, Educatum, or Educere. Educatum and educare mean to train and to nourish, while educere mean to lead out. The former implies that education is something external; to be imposed or put in from outside, it means the external environment plays a decisive role in learning process. The latter indicate growth from within; it means internal potentialities of an individual are decisive in learning process, the external environment has secondary role in educational process. Naturalists / Psychologists gave more importance to internal dispositions of learning process while the social philosophers put major stress on external demands of educational process. We assumed a mixed and balanced approach towards role and importance of internal-external environment of learning process.

Definition

Aristotle defined education as process necessary for the creation of a sound mind in a sound body, according to him, the aim & objective of education is to create good and virtuous citizens. Ibne Khaldun, in fourteenth century, expresses the view that education consists off intellectual, social, and moral training through which hidden potentialities are developed, traits of character are built and culture of the people is conveyed to the coming generations. Dewey, in twentieth century, defined education in these words: “Education is a process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is development of all those capacities in the individual that will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities.” We may define education as, Education is the mean whereby adults pass on and inculcates to children their knowledge, thought-pattern, and behavior pattern and develop their genetic potential to manage existing and future challenges.